BAHASA INGGRIS

materi bahasa inggris kelas XI

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REPORT

Text Report menguras suatu hasil pengamatan, penelaahan, penelitian, observasi, atau studi tentang benda, binatang, orang, atau tempat participant pada Report cendrung general. Data yang tersaji umumnya berupa simpulan umum akan karakteristik, ciri dan atau keberadaan dan keadaan participant.

Tujuan text Report adalah untuk menggambarkan participant apa adanya bila yang di bicarakan suatu benda. Text Report lebih menyoroti fungsi dari benda tersebut

Text Repot lazimnya menyodorkan suatu generalisasi akan participant yang di ulas, generalisasi ini umumnya di dapat lewat membandingkan yang satu dengan yang lain yang tergolong participant yang sejenis.

Structure of Text Report
General Classification : Pernyataan umum yang menerangkan subjek laporan, keterangan dan klarifikasinya
Description : Penginformasian Ciri-ciri umum/generalisasi yang dimiliki subjek misalnya sifat, pesikologis, prilaku, tampilan fisik, fitur khas, kualitas dan sejenisnya

Grammatical Feature
a. focus on Generic Participants
b. use of relational processes to state what is and what which it is
c. use a simple past tense
d. no temporal sequences

Example

Title Different Types of Sea Mammals
General classification
Seals, sea lion and walruses live both on land and in the sea. When on dry land or on ice, They are every clumsy in their movements. But in the water they swim gracefully. They all leave the water for land or ice fields to give birth to their young.
Description The dolphins are larger. These animals are mainly fish eaters. Experiments show that dolphins are intelligent and can communicate with each other. They can be trained to perform various kinds of tricks and acts.
The highly intelligent killer where whale belongs to the dolphins family. Despite of its scary name, it has never been heard to attack human.

ANALYTICAL
Text Exposition bertujuan untuk menyodorkan pendapat/ide/pendapat/argumen penulis akan suatu perkara/topik/permasalahan/fenomena. Terdapat dua fariasi dalam Text Exposition.
1. Analytical Exposition
Dalam Analytical Exposition penulis menyodorkan pandangan/ide/opini/pendapat. Suatu topik atau fenomena atau masalah perjudapat perhatian, ulasan atau penjelasan atau uraian atau data penguat. Tanpa dimunculkannya usaha untuk mempengaruhi/membujuk pembaca untuk memiliki sikap pro-kontra terhadap sesuatu. Analytical Exposition juga dikenal dengan istilah Argumentative.
Generic structure of Analytical Exposition
Thesis : Pernyataan pendapat penulis akan sesuatu kasus/fenomena
Argument : Terdiri dari poin atau inti masalah/perbandingan atau hal yang menjadi concern dan elaboration. Penjelasan atau pemaparan dari point.
Reiteration : Penguatan pernyataan

Unsur Kebahasaan yang digunakan Text Analytical Exposition

General noun misilnya pollution, car
Abstract noun misalnya policy, government
Jargon misalnya species, mammal
Modals misalnya must, should
Bahasa evaluative misalnya important, valuable
Kalimat passive

2. Hortatory Exposition
Text Hortatory Exposition bertujuan untuk menyodorkan pandangan/ide/opini/pendapat untuk mempengaruhi/membujuk pembaca untuk memiliki sikap pro-kontra terhadap sesuatu dan atau mengajak pembaca untuk melakukan sesuatu. Hortatory Exposition juga dikenal dengan istilah Persuasive

Generic structure of hortatory Exposition
Thesis : pernyataan pendapat penulis akan suatu kasus/fenomena atau issue hal yang dipersoalkan
Argument : alasan mengapa ada keprihatinan dan pengaruh pada saran atau rekomendasi
Re-Commendation : pernyataan tentang bagai mana seharusnya atau tidak seharusnya sesuatu ada atau dilakukan.

Unsur Kebahasaan Text Hortatory Exposition
Abstract noun misalnya polisi, government
Jargon misalnya species, mammal
Modals misalnya must, should
Bahasa evaluatif misalnya important, valuable
Kalimat passive
Thinking verb misalnya I believe, I think

Example
Analytical Exposition
Thesis
In Australia there are three levels of government, the federal government. All of there levels of government are necessary. This is so for a number of reasons.
Argument
First, the federal government is necessary for the big things. They keep the economy in order and look after things like defense. Similarly, the state governments look after the middle-sized things. For example they look after low and order, preventing things like vandalism in schools. Finally, local governments look after the small things. They look after things like collecting rubbish, otherwise everyone would have diseases.
Reiteration
Thus, for the reasons above we can conclude that the three levels of government are necessary.

Hortatory Exposition
Thesis In all the discussion over he removal of lead from petrol (and the atmosphere) there doesn’t teem to have been any mention of the difference between driving in the city and the country.
Argument While I realize my leaded petrol car is polluting the air wherever I drive, I feel that when you travel through the county, where you only see another car very five to ten minutes, the problem is not as severe as when traffic is concentrated on city roads.
Those who want to penalize older, leaded petrol vehicles and their owners don’t seen to appreciate that, in the country, there is no public transport to fall back upon and one’s own vehicle is the only way to get about.
Re-commendation I feel that country people, who often have to travel huge distances to the nearest town and who already spend a spec deal of money on petrol, should be treated differently to the people who live.

ADJECTIVE CLAUSE (KATA SIFAT)
1. Who : Bersifat kata orang {she, he}
2. Whom : Bersifat kata orang {me, you, her, him, than, us, it}
3. Whose : Bersifat kata orang {her, his, my, your, our, their, its}
4. Which : Bersifat kata benda {me, you, her, their, us, it}
Example
Who
I thanked the woman. She helped me
I thanked the woman. Who helped me
Whom
The man was Mr. Jones. I saw him
The man whom was Mr. Jones I raw
the people were very nice. We visited than yesterday
the people were very nice. Whom we visited yesterday
Whose
I apologized the woman. I spelled her coffee
I apologized the woman Whose I spelled coffee
I know the man His bicycle was stolen
I know the man Whose bicycle was stolen
Which
the book was good. I red it
the book which I red was good
the move wasn’t very good. We say it last night
the move wasn’t very good which we say last night.

EXPRESSION GIVING AND ASK FOR OPINION

Asking for opinion
1. What do you think for/if…
2. Do you think…
3. What’s your opinion about…
4. What your idea about…
Giving for opinion
1. In myopinion abaut…
2. I think…
3. in myview…
4. I assume…
Example
What’s your opinion about mrs.Dini?
In myopinion about mrs.Dini is beautiful, she is have high body and in studying she is very explicit. He student late go to school, she give a punishment which hard.
EXPRESSION OF LOVE & SADNES

The Expression of love :
I love son much
I love you, baby
I do care about you
I really care about you
I like you, honey
You are my love, sweetheart
My dear, I always think about you

The expression of sadness :
I am feeding so sad
I am really sad
Please make leaved me alone
It’s the sadness day in my live
You make me sad

AGREEMENT AND DISAGREEMENT
Merupakan untuk menunjukan sikap atau posisi seseorang penutur akan suatu masalah/pendapat/situasi.
Enquiring about (mencari tahu pendapat)
Wouldn’t you agree ( that )…?
Wouldn’t you say (that)…?
Don’t you think (that)…?
Expressing agreement (menyatakan persetujuan)
I agree (with you)
You are right
That’ right
I know
Absolutely
Defenetely
Expressing disagreement (menyatakan tidak persetujuan)
I disagree
I don’t agree
I am not sure (about that)
I don’t know (about that)
I am cann’t agree

EXPRESSIONS OF ANGER/BE ANGER
go away:
I have you:
Shouth your mounth:
Example
X: I will go away because I’m anger some you
Y: I’m sorry, I must make you anger

CONDITIONAL
Pola conditional merupakan bentuk kalimat pengandaian dengan ciri hadirnya kata jika/apabila, yang umumnya dinyatakan dangan kata IF. Terdapat dua kategori besar pola pengandaian yakni : The real (factual dan nabiutral) dan unreal (centrary to the fact).
The real conditional yang lebih dikenal dengan istilah future conditional, merupakan pola lamunan yang menyatakan sesuatu memiliki peluang untuk terjadi bila syarat tertentu terpenuhi selanjutnya disebut conditional type 1.
Type unreal merupakan pola lamunan yang merupakan pengingkaran dari fakta sebenarnya akan terjadi atau sedang terjadi sekarang yang lebih dikenal dengan present conditional atau conditional type 2.
Dan kedua lamunan yang berkontradiksi dengan yang sebenarnya sudah terjadi yang lebih dikenal dengan past conditional atau conditional type 3.

1. Future Conditional (Conditional Type 1)
Pengandaian ini menyatakan sesuatu mungkin terjadi pada waktu mendatang atau sekarang, jika syarat atau kondisi tertentu terpenuhi. Conditional type 1 dibentuk oleh rangkaian simple present sebagai sub-clause dan simple future sebagai
main clause.
If + subject 1 + present + subject 2 + [will/can/may/must] + verb 1 (simple form)

Example
1. If you come with me for a jogride to night, you will have a great fun.
2. You must study hard, if you want to enter favorite university
“If” Pada pola diatas dapat dilesapkan / dihilangkan tanpa mengubah makna dengan mengubah structur polanya didalam bentuk inverse
Should + subject 1 + simple form + subject 2 + [will/can/may/must] + verb 1 (simple form)

Example
~ If you come with me for a jogride to night, you will have a gread fun
~ Should you want to enter favorite university, you must study hard

2. Present Conditional (Conditional Type 2)
Pengandaian ini menyatakan sesuatu yang bertentangan dengan apa yang ada / terjadi sekarang / belakangan ini.

If + subject 1 + simple past + subject 2 + [would / could / might] + verb 1 / be
Example
1. If I had time, I would go to the beach with you this week and
2. He would tell you about, it if he were here
“If” dengan menggunakan to be “were” pada pola diatas dapat dilesapkan / dihilangkan tanpa mengubah makna dengan mengubah structur polanya kedalam bentuk inversi.
Were +subject 1 + adjective + noun + subject 2 + [would / could / might] + verb / be

Example
~ Were I to have time, I would go to the beach with you this weekend
~ Were he here, he would tell you about it
3. Past Conditional (Conditional Type 3)
Pengandaian ini menyatakan sesuatu yang bertentangn dengan apa yang telah terjadi sesuatu yang sudah berlalu
If + subject 1 + past perfect + subject 2 + [would / could / might] + have + verb 3 / been
Example
1. If I had known you were there, I would have writen you a letter
2. If you had asked me I would, have told you the whole story
Bentuk inversi (tanpa menggunakan kata “if”) untuk type ini adalah
Had + subject 1 + verb 3/been + subject 2 + [would/could/might] + have + verb 3/been

Example
~ Had I known you were there, I would have written you a letter
~ Had you asked me I would have told you the whole story

Example of Conditional
1. If I were in town, I would go
I do not were in town, pn i would not go
2. If I had known you were, I would come to have you.
I do not had known you were, so I would not came to have you.

SPOOF
Goal/purpose
Toretell/to tell funny story
The structures
Orientation : Pengenalan waktu,tokoh dan tempat.
Event : Kejadian.
Twist : Akhir yang tidak terduga atau lucu.
Keterangan
Dalam satu Sroof text, dapat terjadi beberapa event.
Example:
Tittel Penguin in the par
Orientation Once a man was walking in a park when he came a class a penguin.
Event 1
He took him to a policeman and said.” I have just Found this penguin what should ? Do?”
The policeman replied” take him to the zoo.
Event 2
The next day the policeman saw the some in the some park and the man was still carrying the penguin with him. The policeman was rather surprised and walked up to the man and asked. “Why are you still earring that penguin about ? Didn’t you take it to the zoo” “I Certainly did” Repaired the man.
Twist
And it was great idea because he really enjoyed it so today I am taking him to the movies.

WOULD RATHER… (THAN), (WOULD) PREFER TO RATHER THAN PREFER SOME THINGT SOME THING.

‘Would rather’ mempunyai arti: Would prefer to ( lebih suka ).
Example
A- I would rather have ice cream than milk shake.
B- Would you rather have ice cream or milk shake?
C- I would prefer to have ice cream rather than milk shake
D- I would rather not have anything
E- Do you want to eat out? ‘no I’d rather not’
F- I would prefer eat out rather than go/to go/going to the movies
Keterangan
1} Dalam kalimat Tanya kita menggunakan or untuk memperkenalkan suatu pilihan, sedangkan dalam kalimat pasif yang menggunakan would rather kita menggunakan than.
2} kita menggunakan rather than dengan would prefer + to invinitive.
3} Untuk kalimat negative. Kita menambahkan not setelah would rather/would prefer dan sebelum kata kerja utama sehingga kalimat
– I would rather not have ice cream
– I would prefer not to have ice cream
4} kita menggunakan
Would prefer + to infinitive + rather than + infinitive
Would prefer + to infinitive + rather than + to infinitive
would prefer + to infinitive + rather than +V ing(dalam contoh f diatas)
5} Kita mengatakan ‘I’d rather not’ sebagai jawaban pendek. kita menggunakan prefer dengan cara berikut
~ Prefer to + infinitive + rather than + infinitive/to infinitive/verb/ing
I prefer to swim rather than play/to play/playing basket ball
~ Prefer + verb + ing + to + verb + ing
I prefer swimming to playing basket ball
~ Prefer + verb + ing + rather than + verb + ing
I prefer swimming rather than playing basket ball
~ Prefer + something + to + something
I prefer tea to coffee
A} “Rather than” dalam kalimat diatas dapat diganti dengan instead of tetapi kata kerja yang mengikuti ‘instead of’ harus dalam bentuk Verb + ing
Example
I prefer to stay (at) home instead of going out
B} “rather than” dapat diikuti oleh infinitive, to infinitive atau verb + ing, tetapi penggunaannya lebih baik di sesuaikan dengan kata kerja sebelumnya
C} Jika kita lebih suka seseorang melakukan sesuatu kita menyatakannya dengan prefer : I prefer you to do it for me.
(Prefer + somebody + to + infinitive)
D} Dengan would rather (would rather + some body + the past form)
 – I’d rather you did it for me
– I’d rather you didn’t smoke

ADVERB
A. Adverb of manner (kata keterangan cara)
Kata-kata yang termasuk kedalam adverb of manner diantaranya adalah :

Best : terbaik yang paling baik
Better : makin baik, lebih sehat, lebih suka
Calmly : dengan tenang
Carefully : dengan hati-hati, dengan teliti
Carelesly : dengan sembarangan, gegabah,tanpa tanggung jawab
Early : pagi-pagi
Fast : cepat
Faster : lebih cepat
Grandually : secara berangsur-angsur
Hard : keras, lebat, dengan tajam
Harder : lebih keras, lebih telat, dan lebih tajam
Hurrledly : terburu-buru, tergopoh-gopoh
Late: terlambat
Well: baik, jauh, benar

Example
a. I am Felling better today
b. She is best language spanis in the class
c. He driver carefully every where

B. Adverb of place (keterangan tempat)
Kata-kata yang termasuk kedalam adverb of place diantaranya:

Above : Diatas
Abroad : Luar negri, dengan luas, tersiar, tersebar
Below : Dibawah, kebawah
Down town : Kota
Far : Jauh
Gance : Dari sini
Here : Disini
In side : Kedalam
Near : Keluar, diluar
Thence : Dari Sana
There : Disana, disitu, kesana

Example
a. She lives above tree
b. They go to abroad every year
c. We go to down town

C. adverb of definite time (keterangan waktu yang jelas)
Kata-kata yang termasuk kedalam adverb of definite time diantaranya :

A few days Ag : Beberapa hari yang lalu
A few minute Ag : Beberapa saat yang lalu
At the moment : Sekarang ini
Farmerly : Dahulu, tadinya
In the past : Dimasa lalu
Last night : Tadi malam
Now : sekarang
Right now : sekarang ini juga
The other day : beberapa hari yang lalu, baru-baru ini
Tomorrow : besok
To nigh : malam ini
Yesterday : kemarin

Example
a. I met than a few days ago
b. They finished their work a few minute ago
c. I lived in bandung formerly

PRESENT PERFECT TENSE
Digunakan untuk menyatakan suatu perbuatan yang terjadi pada masa lalu dimasa waktu tidak tertentu (bentuk waktu selesai sekarang).
S + have/has + V3 + O

Keterangan
Have untuk subjek they, we, I, you
has untuk subjek she, he, it
Example
1. They have cathee this morning
2. Dedi has antihu pencil in the market.

Preference
Digunakan untuk menyatakan suatu perbandingan
….. like….. better than…..
….. prefer….. to …..
….. would rather….. than….

1. I like coffee batter than tea
(Suka ) (dari pada)
2. Eka prefer fried rice to fried noodle
(Lebih suka) (daripada)
3. siti would rather ice than milkshake

Diposkan oleh Desire Peace di 15:04 0 komentar

materi bahasa inggris kelas X

TELLING SOMETHING IN THE PAST (RECOUNT)
Recount adalah salah satu bentuk laporan yang menceritakan mengenai kejadian yang sudah terjadi yang tujuannya untuk memberikan informasi atau menghibur pembaca.
Macam – macam Recount
Factual Recount lapangan yang berdasarkan kenyataan
Personal Recount lapangan yang tidak berdasarkan kenyataan
Imaginative Recount lapangan yang tidak berdasarkan kenyataan.
Ciri – ciri kebaharaan Recount
Use of simple past tense.
Temporal sequence.
Use of material processes.
Focus on specific participants.
Circumstances of time and places.
Generic Structure of Recount
Orientation : Pemberian informasi tentang siapa, dimana, dan kapan terjadi.
Even : Rekaman kejadian yang biasanya di sampaikan secure berretta.
Re-orientation : Kesimpulan ( akhir cerita )
Example Task Recount
Orientation On Wednesday, my students and I went to Jogjakarta. We stayed at Dirgahayu hotel which is not far from Malioboro
Even On Thursday we visited the temples in Prambanan. Tidied are three big temples, the Brahmana and syiwa temples, because went temple is being renovated.

Re-orientation On Friday morning we went to Jogja kraton. We spent about two hours there. We were lucky because we were led by a smart and friendly guide. Then we continued our journey to Borobudur. We arrived there at four p.m. at 5 p.m. We heard and announcement that Borobudur gate would be closed
In the evening we left for Jakarta by wisata bus.

SIMPLE PAST TENSE ( KATA LAMPAU )

It is used to keel lie event in the past.

1. Verbal sentence

S + V2 +… ( + )
S + Didn’t + V1 +… ( – )
Did + S + V1 +… ( ? )

Example
She went to office yesterday (+)
She didn’t go to office yesterday (-)
Did she go to office yesterday (?)

2. Nominal sentence

S + was/were + adjective/adverb/nom (+)
S + was/were + not + adjective/adverb/nom (-)
Was/were + S + adjective/adverb/nom (?)

Was (I, he, she, it)
Were (you, they, we)

Example
My brother was a doctor (+)
My brother wasn’t a doctor (-)
Was my brother a doctor (?)

EXPRESSING REQUEST

When we have a request, we can use some forms of the request expressions.
Can you
Could you + V1 +….?
Would you Maukah kamu…?
Would you mind + V1 (ing) +….?
I wonder if you + V1 +…..?
Example
a. Can you open the window, please?
b. Could you raise your hand?
c. Would you mind sitting on my chair?

COMMAND AND PROHIBITION

a. Command (infinitive to)
– Cook there vegetables!
– Buy fruits in the market!
b. Prohibition (negative command)
Don’t + infinitive + o +!
– Don’t come late!
– Don’t eat in the class!
You + may not + infinitive + o +!
– You may not open the door!
– You may not close the window!
You + must not + infinitive + o +!
– You must not stand up!
– You must not sit down!

SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE
Digunakan untuk menyatakan perbuatan/peristiwa yang dilakukan sehari-hari.
1. Verbal
S + V1 (s/es) + O (+)
S + Do/does + Not + V1 + O (-)
Do/does +S + V1 + O (?)
Time signal

Every day
No noonday
Always
Sometime
Generally
After
Do = jamak (I, you, they, we)
Does = tunggal (he, she, it)
Example
a. She goes to school every day (+)
She does not go to school every day (-)
Does She to school every day (?)
b. We study English on Monday (+)
We do not study English on Monday (-)
Do we study English Monday (?)
Keterangan
Penambahan “s” atau “es” hanya untuk bilangan tunggal dan untuk kalimat pasifnya saja.
2. Nominal
S + tube (is, am, are) + Noun/adjective (+)
S + tube + Not + Noun/adjective (-)
Tube + S + Noun/adjective ( )
Example
My brother is a teacher (+)
My brother is not a teacher (-)
Is my brother a teacher (?)

PREPOSITION
Listen and Repeat
At = digunakan untuk menyatakan tempat dan waktu
On = digunakan untuk menyatakan waktu
In = digunakan untuk menyatakan tempat dan waktu

At half
At night
At Jakarta
On Wednesday
On 15th April
In Bandung
In 1956

EXPRESSING (LIKES AND DISLIKES)
The bold sentences in the dialogue constitute the expression of like and dislike
There are roof expressions of stating like and dislike.

Stating like
I really like… ( watching foot ball/chicken )
I’m quite keen on… ( hiking/tennis )
I’m fond of… ( playing foot ball/music )
Agreeing with like
So do I
Oh yes, I do too
So am I
Disagreeing with like
Oh, do you? I do not really
Oh, are you? I am not really
Oh, really

Stating dislike
I really don’t like… (watching horror films)
I hate… (that man)
I dislike… (people smoking in the bus/ rock music)
I’m not particular keen on… (watching boxing)
I don’t find… (hiking/that novel) very good/enjoy able.
I think… (his speech is rather boring)

Agreeing with dislikes
neither am I
neither do I
Yes, it’s awful/rather terrible, isn’t it?

Disagreeing with dislike
Oh, really?
Oh, don’t you? I really like…
Oh, aren’t you? I’m quite fee on!
Example
Give your comments by using like or dislike
1. You agree with the following statements. What would you say?
a. I don’t find watching horror films very interesting.
b. I’m not fond of reading a comic
c. I especially dislike hard rock music
2. You disagree with the following statements. What would you say?
a. I’m not very keen on seafood
b. I think reading a novels is great fun.
c. I’m not over keen on swimming in the sea
Answer
1. a. Neither do I
b. Neither am I
c. Yes, it’s awful, isn’t it?
2 a. Oh aren’t you? I’m quite been on seafood
b. Oh don’t you? I really like reading a novel
c. Oh aren’t you? I’m quite keen on swimming

PAST CONTINUES TENSE

It is used to express the activity which was still going on in the past or
It is used to express the activity that is being done wheel another activity is happened is the past.

S + Was/were + V1 (ing) +… ( + )
S + was/were + not + V1 (ing) +… (-)
Was/were + s + V1 (ing) +… (?)

Example
She was playing football this morning (+)
She was not playing football this morning (-)
Was she playing football this morning (?)
Keterangan
a. ketika ada dua kejadian berlangsung bersama maka keduanya menggunakan past continuous.
Example
– While Rudy was reading a book Karina was not watching TV
– Fini was watching TV while Manan reading a book
b. Tapi jika ada satu kejadian dan disusul dengan kejadian yang kedua maka kalimat yang pertama menggunakan past continuous yang kedua menggunakan past tense

Example
– While Harry was watching TV Rudy read a book
– When Fini come home nona was watching TV
While : Diikuti past continuous kemudian past tense
When : Diikuti past tense kemudian past continuous

DESCRIPTION

Text description bertujuan untuk menggambarkan seseorang, sesuatu, suatu tempat, seekor binatang seara khusus text description menyodorkan banyak informasi tentang orang, benda, tempat, binatang secara gamblang, rinci, dan dapat dipublikasikan atau digambarkan.

Generic structure of description
1. Identification : Pengenalan subjek atau hal yang akan dideskripsikan
2. Description : Menginformasikan ciri-ciri subjek contohnya sifat, psikologis, prilaku, tampilan fisik ciri-ciri khas, dan kualitas.
Description biasanya menggunakan simple present tense.

Example

Identification I have a set. It is a dog and I call it Crow.
Crow is a Chinese breed. It is small, fluffy, and cute. It has got thick brown fur. When I cuddle it, the fur feels soft. Crow does not like comes. Every day it eats soft done like steamed rice, fish or bread. Every morning i give her milk.
Description And bread. When I an at school, Crow plays with my cat. They got along well, and never fright maybe because Crow does not Carl a lot. It treats the other animals in our house gently, and it never eats shoes. Crow is really a sweet and friendly animal.

HOW TO DO THINGS (PROCEDURE)
Social function of procedure
The purpose of the social function of a procedure is to describe how something is done or made through a sequence of instructions.
Generic Structure of a Procedure
a. Goal: something we want to reach (to do/ to make)
b. Materials: and equipments needed
c. Steps: series of instructions using sequence of orders
Significant Grammatical Features
a. Use of simple present tense mostly in the form of imperative/command (positive and negative)
b. Use of the sequence of orders marked by the word: first, then, next, after that, finally, etc.
c. Use of must and must not
Example
Goal : How to make Sweet Coffee
Tools : 1. Cup
2. Spoon
3. under layer
Materials : Sweet coffee
Water warm
Sugar
Steps : 1. Pour coffee and sugar sufficiently into cup
2. Pour water warm into cup with mix well
3. Put cup in up under layer
4. Sweet coffee is really to be served.

PRESENT CONTINUOUS TENSES
Digunakan untuk menyatakan perbuatan yang sedang terjadi.
S + tube (is, am, are) + V1 (ing) +… (+)
S + tube + not + V1 (ing) +… (-)
Tube + S + V1 (ing) +… (?)

Example
1. I am writing in the blackboard now (+)
I am not writing in the blackboard now (-)
Am I writing in the blackboard now (?)
2. She is reading a book this moment (+)
She is not reading a book this moment (-)
Is she reading a book this moment (?)

PASSIVE VOICE
Tube + T3

Active
Simple Present Tense
S + V1 (s/es)
She eats an apple on Sunday
Present continuous tense
S + tube + V1 (ing)
She is eating an apple now
Simple Past tense
S + V2
She ate an apple yesterday
Simple Future tense
S + Will/shall + V1
Shall (I, we)
She will eat apple tomorrow
Passive
Simple Present Tense
S + tube + V3
An apple is eaten by her yesterday
Present Continuous Tense
S + tube + being + V3
An apple is being eaten by her now
Simple Past Tense
S + tube (Was/were) + V3
An apple was eaten by her yesterday
Simple Future Tense
S + Will/shall + be + V3
An apple will be eaten by her tomorrow.

ONCE UPON A TIME (NARRATIVE)
General Characteristic of Narrative
1. Social function of Narrative
To entertain, amuse, and to deal with actual or vicarious experiences in different ways. Narrative deal with problematic events which lead to a crisis or turning point of some kids which in turn finds a resolution
2. Narrative Text Type
Narrative text types are in the form of: fable, fairy tales, historical stories, folktale, legends, mysteries, etc.
3. Generic Structure of Narrative
Orientation : sets the scene and introduces the participants
Complication : a crisis cerise
Resolution : the crisis is resolved for better or for worse
4. Significant Language Feature of Narrative
a) Focus in specific and individualized participants
b) Use of relational processes (action verbs)
c) Use relational processes and mental processes
d) Use of past tense
e) Use of temporal conjunctions and temporal circumstances
f) Use of process (saying verbs) in direct and speech.
Example
Title Cinderella
Orientation Once upon a time there was a beautiful girl called Cinderella. She lived with her stepsister and stepmother. They were very bossy. She had to do all the housework.
Complication One day an invitation to the ball came to the family. Her stepsister did not let her go, so Cinderella was very sad. The stepsister went to the ball without her.
resolution Fortunately, the fairy good other came and helped her to get to the ball. At the call, Cinderella dance with the prince. The prince fell in love with her then he married her. They lived happily ever after.
BREAKING NEWS (NEW ITEM)
General Characteristic of News Item

1. Social Function of News Item
To inform the reader, listener or viewers the particulars/details of an event, accident or incident take place

2. Text Type
News Item (informative article)

3. Generic Structure of Narrative
Newsworthy event: First, write the country/city/place where the events took pace. Then, present the information on the who, when and the actual location of the events.
Background events: The body of the news items tells the events that took pace in the order that they happened. You may give general comments on the events and include quotes from people involved in the events
Sources: The events start to end. It usually in attends the comments from the public, like, the witnesses, police or expert

4. Significant Language Feature of Narrative
Action Verb
Adjective
Connectors to do with the time and sequence
Pronoun
Simple past tense
Adverbs
Compound and complex sentences

Example

Title Man jailed for striking RI maid
News worthy event SINGAPORE – A supervisor was jailed for two moths for repeatedly striking his Indonesian maid on the head and back with a television remote control, news reports said on Thursday
background even 1

Even 2

Even 3 Muhamad Shafiq Woon Abdullah admitted in a Singapore court he physical abused the woman on several occasions between June and October 2002, The straits time said.
The magistrate’s court heard that Shafiq, 31 began striking Winarti, 22 about a month after she started working for him.
He hit her on the head with the TV sets sent control because he was unhappy with her work. On one occasion, he punched her on the back after
source Accusing her of daydreaming – DPA

SUMBER : http://mysisterkyt.blogspot.com/2009/10/materi-bahasa-inggris-kelas-xi.html

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